Half collared tree sparrow , Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

The half collared tree sparrow (Arremon semitorquatus) is a species of bird in the family Passerellidae. It is endemic to southeastern Brazil. Only recently treated as a separate species from the widespread Pectoral Sparrow (Arremon taciturnus), the Half-collared (or Semi-collared) Sparrow is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, between Espírito Santo and northern Rio Grande do Sul. It occurs in the undergrowth of humid forest and woodland, in both the lowlands and more montane regions, and is easily overlooked, in part through its undoubted scarcity, but also due to its relatively secretive habits and quiet vocalizations. Compared to the Pectoral Sparrow, with which there is only marginal overlap, the present species is easily distinguished, given good views, by its lemon-yellow lower mandible, ‘interrupted’ breast band, and reduced yellow on the wing-bend. However, there seem to be no differences in behavior between the two species. The half collared tree sparrow natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and heavily degraded former forest. It is Forages on ground, often by scratching in leaf litter. Tends to be found singly, sometimes in pairs or family groups. It is not globally threatened and is concerned least concern by IUCN and is […]

Pair of olive green tanager, Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

  The olive-green tanager (Orthogonys chloricterus) is a species of bird of the family Mitrospingidae, in the monotypic genus Orthogonys. It is endemic to Brazil, where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and heavily degraded former forest. The sole member of one of several Thraupidae genera that is endemic to Brazil, the Olive-green Tanager inhabits coastal montane forest, principally above 900 m, in the southeast of the country between Espírito Santo and Santa Catarina. This comparatively large-bodied tanager is very distinctively but rather uniformly plumaged, being dull olive-green above, and rather yellower below. It seems to be largely or exclusively a group-living species, often being observed in bands of up to circa ten individuals, which forage for insects and fruits, even visiting bird tables in some places, and at least occasionally serving as a nucleus for mixed-species foraging flocks. To date, very little has been published concerning the Olive-green Tanager’s breeding behavior. The olive green tanager feeds on Insects; some fruit, including Cecropia catkins. It usually Occurs in flocks of about eight individuals, occasionally up to 20, most often in mixed hunting parties. It is not globally threatened and is concerned least concern by IUCN and […]

Green headed Tanager and flower, Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

The green headed tanager (Tangara seledon) is a brightly-colored bird found in the Atlantic forest in south-eastern Brazil, far eastern Paraguay, and far north-eastern Argentina (Misiones only). As other members of the genus Tangara, it is a small colorful bird, measuring an average of 13.5 centimeters (5.3 in) and a mass of 18g (0.6 oz). The Green-headed Tanager has a greenish or bluish head, black on the back, and a contrastingly colored, orange or red rump. Females and juvenile birds have similar, though duller coloration. While essentially a bird of humid forests, it is also common in orchards and parks, where it moves through the canopy, making itself inconspicuous, as its apparently flashy blue-green coloration camouflages it well amongst the foliage. They usually travel in small flocks, either on their own or in association with a larger mixed-species flock. The diet consists both of fruit and arthropods; when foraging for arthropods, they hop along slender to medium-sized branches, and glean prey from branch surfaces and from leaves. The sister species to the Green-headed Tanager is the Seven-colored Tanager (Tangara fastuosa), a similar tanager found in northeastern Brazil. Although the behavior and plumage pattern of the Green-headed and Seven-colored tanagers are […]

Blond crested woodpecker low key image, Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

The blond-crested woodpecker (Celeus flavescens) is a species of bird in the family Picidae, the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. It is found in Brazil, southeastern Paraguay, and extreme northeastern Argentina. A small disjunct population occurs at the Amazon River mouth and upstream, including the southern part of Ilha de Marajo. The ochre-backed woodpecker is sometimes considered a subspecies. The striking Blond-crested Woodpecker sports a bushy, pointed crest that gives the bird a “big-headed” look. Males also have a bright red malar (cheek) patch. Blond-crested Woodpeckers eat fruits and berries, making this bird an important seed disperser. But like other members of the genus Celeus, including the Kaempfer’s Woodpecker, the Blond-crested Woodpecker primarily eats tree ants and termites. Like other woodpeckers, the Blond-crested Woodpecker has zygodactyl feet, with two toes facing forward and two back. This foot arrangement, along with specialized central tail feathers that act as props, are practical adaptations that for birds that spends much of their time clambering up and down tree trunks. The species appears to be an important pollinator of Spirotheca passifloroides, an endangered canopy tree of Brazil’s Atlantic forest. The trees bloom in the austral winter, with small, red flowers that provide large amounts of […]

Black throated grosbeak, Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

This species and the Slate-colored Grosbeak (Saltator grossus) are closely related allopatric taxa that were formerly placed in their own genus, Pitylus, but they are larger billed than any other species currently placed in Saltator. Principally found in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil, the Black-throated Grosbeak also ranges into southeast Paraguay and extreme northeast Argentina, where it ranges up to 1200 m, in humid montane forest. Within its range, this grosbeak is wholly unmistakable, being entirely dark bluish slate with a blackish throat and breast in males, which is dusky in females; both sexes possess a very chunky red bill. The black-throated grosbeak (Saltator fuliginosus) is a species of songbird. Traditionally placed in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae), it actually seems to be closer to the tanagers (Thraupidae). It is not globally threatened and is concerned least concern by IUCN.